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Artificial Intelligence


Syllabus (with reading list).


Schedule of classes, with references to reading material and other readings.

Please check this schedule regularly, is it will be often updated!



Reference to reading material

Other readings

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Introduction to Artificial Intelligence

Chapter 1

A general introduction to Artificial Intelligence in the framework of Computing and to its history and perspectives is (in Italian):

Marco Somalvico, Francesco Amigoni, Viola Schiaffonati, “Intelligenza artificiale”.


The original paper by Alan Turing that introduced the idea of Turing test (often reported in different forms) is:

Alan Turing, “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”, Mind, 59:433-460, 1950.


The document “A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence”, written in 1955 by John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Nathaniel Rochester, and Claude Shannon, introduced for the first time the term “Artificial Intelligence”:


Many topics related to Artificial Intelligence are discussed in the articles of the special issue “Singularity Issue” of IEEE Spectrum:

(The above document may be accessed, following the reported link, from within the Politecnico network.)


The web site of the textbook collects several resources on Artificial Intelligence, including the code of the algorithms discussed in class:


An interesting book that presents the history of the ideas of Artificial Intelligence (also for the general public) is:

N. Nilsson, “The Quest for Artificial Intelligence: A History of Ideas and Achievements”, Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Intelligent agents 

Chapter 2


Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Problem-solving agents

Sections 3.1-3.2


Some curious facts about the eight and fifteen puzzles, like the fact that the state space for these problems is bipartite in two disjoint sets:

Friday, September 27, 2019


Wednesday, October 2, 2019

Searching for solutions of a problem

Section 3.3



Friday, October 4, 2019

Uninformed search strategies

Section 3.4


Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Informed search strategies

Sections 3.5-3.6

A nice discussion (with several examples) of application of A* to path planning is reported at:

Friday, October 11, 2019

Exercises on uninformed search strategies



Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Exercises on informed search strategies 



Friday, October 18, 2019

Adversarial search (games)


Sections 5.1-5.2, 5.4


An interesting analysis (for the general public) of how computer programs influence the human chess players appears in (in Italian):

Giovanni Zagni, “Il Grande Maestro e il computer”, Il Post, 25 marzo 2011.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Adversarial search (games)

Sections 5.3, 5.5, 5.7-5.8



Friday, October 25, 2019

Exercises on adversarial search



Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Monte Carlo tree search

See reading material on the next column

Reading material on Monte Carlo tree search:

(a) Section 3 of the following paper:

Cameron Browne et al., “A Survey of Monte Carlo Tree Search Methods”, IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games, 4(1):1-43, March 2012.

(b) Sections 1-4 of the following Wikipedia article:

(c) Page “About” of the following web site:


Some innovative developments for chess programs and, particularly, for Go programs are reported in:

Feng-Hsiung Hsu, “Cracking Go”, IEEE Spectrum, 44(10):44-49, October 2007.

(The above document may be accessed, following the reported link, from within the Politecnico network.)


The above developments have eventually enabled the implementation of a Go program able to win against the strongest human players, as reported in:

David Silver et al., “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search”, Nature, 529(7587):484–489, January 28, 2016.

(The above document may be accessed, following the reported link, from within the Politecnico network.)

Friday, November 1, 2019


Wednesday, November 6, 2019


Friday, November 8, 2019

Constraint satisfaction problems

Sections 6.1, 6.3



Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Constraint satisfaction problems

Sections 6.2, 6.3


Friday, November 15, 2019

Logical agents

Sections 7.1, 7.3-7.4, 8.1-8.3, 9.1

For a survey on basic concepts of logic, refer to Sections 7.1-7.4 and 8.1-8.3 of the textbook and to the slides by prof. Viola Schiaffonati (in Italian):

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Exercises on constraint satisfaction problems



Friday, November 22, 2019

Inference procedures for propositional logic

Sections 7.5-7.6


Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Inference procedures for propositional logic


Section 10.1


Friday, November 29, 2019

Exercises on inference procedures for propositional logic



Wednesday, December 4, 2019


Section 10.1


Friday, December 6, 2019


Sections 10.2, 10.4, 11.3


Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Historical aspects of Artificial Intelligence

Chapter 1

Slides on history of Artificial Intelligence by prof. Viola Schiaffonati:

Friday, December 13, 2019

Philosophical aspects of Artificial Intelligence

Chapter 26

Slides on some philosophical aspects of Artificial Intelligence by prof. Viola Schiaffonati:

Wednesday, December 18, 2019




Friday, December 20, 2019

Exercises on planning




In order to take an exam, it is mandatory to register by the deadline using Online Services.


AIxIA (Associazione Italiana per l’Intelligenza Artificiale) is a non-profit association for the promotion of the study and research in the area of Artificial Intelligence. Every year, it offers awards for MSc theses in the area of Artificial Intelligence and grants for participation to events.


January 18, 2019 exam: questions (with answers). 

February 15, 2019 exam: questions (with answers). 



Prof. Marcello Restelli collected exercises shown during the course in this document:


January 29, 2018 exam: questions (with answers). 

February 22, 2018 exam: questions (with answers). 



February 3, 2017 exam: questions (with answers). 

February 23, 2017 exam: questions (with answers). 



February 8, 2016 exam: questions (with answers). 

March 3, 2016 exam: questions (with answers). 



February 7, 2015 exam: questions (with answers). 
February 20, 2015 exam: questions (with answers). 

Sample exams from past years are available at the page of the Intelligenza Artificiale course (in Italian).

October 18, 2019